Unibore Nozzle System

Developed by Pyemetric Refractories Ltd for foundry applications, the Unibore nozzle system provides reduced ladle inventory and fast setup times. Suitable for bottom pouring ladles from 200kg to 10,000kg, the system is also considered ideal for automatic pour systems, ingot casting, static casting and tundish casting. Increased cast yeild and reduced cast fettling are the end result.

Pyemetric Refractories Ltd is a firm believer in company co-operation, no matter how small the enquiry. The organisation was founded in the early 1980s, when Managing Director, Stephen Mills worked within the continuous casting industry as a production operator at British Steel's Lackenby plant.

A positive attitude towards innovative problem solving within the refractory business has resulted in many lifelong relationships with global producers throughout the world. A burning ambition, however, was to work within the foundry sector, an area often overlooked by larger refractory manufacturers. An aptitude to develop products that assist in improving the quality of cast products has always been a key priority for Mr Mills, who holds five patents relating to the control of molten metal.


Among these is Unibore, developed primarily for foundry use. Initially, Pyemetric offered a ladle system that incorporated monoblock stoppers. These could be reused many times without removing the stopper or nozzle, thanks to the introduction of a specially developed stopper gasket that afforded a metal tight seal and release of the stopper after repeated ladle fills. Proven to be a significant advantage when compared to one shot systems, Pyemetric wanted to offer a complete package to foundries, including stopper nozzle linings etc. The Unibore system completed the package, particularly for many jobbing foundries that use different nozzle diameters, allowing the ladle operator to change nozzle diameter between ladle taps, without disturbing the stopper and ensuring that the correct bore diameter is used for the running system.

Tapered bore technology
The introduction of a radical taper inside the bore of the nozzle is beneficial to the mould fill, compensating for ferrostatic head pressure reduction. It also prevents stream flaring and spatter, resulting in a constant parallel casting stream until the ladle is nearly empty.
Constant mould filling times are provided, even with low ferrostatic head pressures. The tapered bore ensures that the amount of friction is reduced to the exit point of the nozzle. According to Pyemetric Refractories, although cross-section bore alternatives are available from other suppliers, they do not compensate for ferrostatic pressure loss; they actually increase it.

Nozzle versatility
The advantage of a two-piece nozzle is that the nozzle diameter can be changed immediately prior to tapping. If the melt specification is changed or for those instances where the casting format requires a smaller or larger diameter, the nozzle can be changed from outside the ladle within one minute. And because the ladle operator can reuse the ladle repeatedly, the system is very efficient in terms of heating costs, retaining the heat from the last tap.

The system was developed to complement the monoblock stopper and was awarded a citation for the influence of metal flow characteristics, as described in US Serial No 09/530.696 group art citation of Stephen David Mills, CFR&1.132 elevating ferrostatic head pressures.

The Unibore system offers reduced consumable costs, parallel casting streams, reduced vortex and drag, as well as the flexibility of selecting different bore sizes without removing the outer nozzle. In addition, the system provides reduced preheating and labour costs.

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